research paper

What is the Abstract of a Research Paper

The abstract is a very important part of a research paper. It is a short summary that highlights the main points of the longer paper. The abstract concisely describes the rationale, methods, findings and implications of the research. It allows readers to quickly understand what the paper is about and determine if they want to read the full paper. The abstract of a research paper serves as a concise summary of the study’s objectives, methodology, results, and conclusions, providing readers with a clear overview of the paper’s content and significance, which can be particularly helpful for individuals seeking writing help from a reputable research paper writing service. The abstract is typically located at the beginning of a published research paper, acting as the point-of-entry for any given scientific paper. Abstracts are important because they help readers quickly filter through papers to find relevant research. They summarize key information that can help readers determine if the overall paper would be useful to read.

Purpose of the Abstract

The main purposes of an abstract are:

  • Describe the rationale and objectives of the study in 2-3 sentences. Why did you undertake this study or analysis? What issues led to this work being carried out? What were the main aims?
  • Summarize the methods in 2-3 sentences. What methods did you use to collect data and do the analysis? Were there any unique or important methods applied that need highlighting?
  • Present the most important findings and results in 2-3 sentences. Avoid too much detail, but communicate the key outcomes and significance.
  • State the main conclusions and implications in 2-3 sentences. What were the key takeaways? How do the results advance knowledge in the field? What did the study find that is useful for theory or practice?
  • Indicate any important limitations if needed in 1-2 sentences. Were there limitations in sampling, design, data, analysis? If so, briefly note what they were.

The abstract should capture the essence of the paper without going into excessive detail. It serves to highlight the major ideas and findings that are discussed at length in the paper itself.

Guidelines for Writing an Effective Abstract

The abstract of a research paper acts as a succinct synopsis of the study’s purpose, methodology, findings, and conclusions, serving as a valuable resource for scholars and professionals alike, especially when they need to order research papers for their academic or professional endeavors. Here are some key guidelines to follow when writing an abstract for a research paper:

Be concise

Abstracts are typically 150-250 words, but can sometimes be shorter or slightly longer depending on the discipline and journal. Stick to the word limit. Focus on including the most essential and relevant information in a compact way. Avoid extraneous details.

Do not include citations

The abstract stands alone and should not contain any citations or references to other sources. It should summarize the key points made inside the paper where citations are relevant.

Use an impersonal tone

Write the abstract in third person using formal language. Do not use personal pronouns like “I” or “we”. Maintain an impersonal and objective tone.

Avoid acronyms and abbreviations

Only use acronyms or abbreviations if they are widely known and add clarity. Otherwise, avoid them and use the full phrasing instead. The abstract should be understandable by readers unfamiliar with the subject. Duotang Binders

Do not include information not in paper

Only include information present in the full paper. The abstract should accurately mirror the overall content.

Write in past tense for completed research

Use past tense to refer to experiments, results and analyses that have already been completed. Use present tense to refer to established facts.

Include keywords

Check the author guidelines, as some journals request a short list of keywords after the abstract. Keywords help with indexing and searching.

Avoid figures, tables, and references

Visuals or references to tables or figures in the paper should not be included in the abstract itself. The abstract summarizes these visual presentations.

Proofread thoroughly

Carefully proofread the abstract to fix any typos, grammar errors, ambiguous language, or other issues. The quality of the abstract sets the tone for the whole paper.

The Standard Structure of an Abstract

While some minor variation can occur, most abstracts follow a standard sequence and structure:

  1. Background: 1-2 sentences providing context, importance, and motivation for the study.
  2. Aim: 1 sentence clearly stating the main objective or research question.
  3. Methods: 1-2 sentences explaining methods used for data collection and analysis at a high level.
  4. Results: 1-2 sentences reporting the most important findings.
  5. Conclusions: 1-2 sentences describing the main implications and significance.

This structured format creates a logical flow while covering all essential information. However, specific instructions from target journals should always be followed.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

There are also some mistakes that should be avoided when writing an abstract:

  • Do not include extraneous background information not directly relevant to the paper. The context should be limited to 1-2 sentences.
  • Do not state information that is not actually covered in the paper. The abstract should accurately represent content.
  • Do not use overly technical language or jargon that outsiders would not understand. Strive for clarity.
  • Do not make any exaggerated claims about the implications of findings. Be measured.
  • Do not paste introduction or conclusion sentences from the paper. These usually reference other sources or do not stand alone.
  • Avoid redundant phrasing and repetition of the title. Each sentence should communicate something specific.
  • Do not add stray detail or discussion that belongs in the main paper. Remember to be concise.

Adhering to best practices and avoiding common mistakes will result in an abstract that effectively communicates the essence of your paper to readers. A well-written abstract acts as a valuable tool for researchers across disciplines. It gives readers a quick snapshot while also accurately and concisely capturing the core focus of the full paper.

The Importance of Writing a Good Abstract

While it is positioned at the beginning, the abstract is often written last after completing the full paper. Despite appearing first, careful attention should be given to crafting a high-quality abstract. Here are several reasons why the abstract is crucially important:

Sets the tone for the paper

The abstract is what readers see first, so it needs to immediately grab their attention and interest them in the topic. A strong abstract makes a good first impression and encourages further reading.

Allows readers to quickly judge relevance

By summarizing the key details, the abstract helps readers determine if the paper is relevant to their own interests or research. This helps them decide if they should devote time to reading the full paper.

Used for indexing and classification

Abstracts are used by indexing services to categorize papers into subjects and classifications. Keywords and descriptions in the abstract facilitate metadata and search functionality.

Provides accessibility

For papers behind journal paywalls, the abstract may be the only part available for free. The abstract thus needs to give open access readers the core message.

Basis for further research

Future researchers will depend on the abstract to quickly understand what has been done before and where gaps in knowledge remain. A clear abstract supports further progress.

In summary, the abstract plays a pivotal role as the entry point to the full paper. An abstract can make or break whether someone reads further, indexes and classifies the paper accurately, or builds on the findings down the road. Crafting an abstract is challenging, but worth the effort.

How Abstracts are Used to Evaluate Research Papers

Abstracts play a pivotal role in the initial evaluation of research papers in academic publishing and conferences. Here is an overview of how abstracts are used:

Initial Manuscript Screening

For journal submissions, editors will first screen abstracts to verify the paper matches the scope and aims of their publication. The abstract must convince them the full paper will appeal to readers.

Peer Review Selection

Abstracts help peer reviewers determine if they have the expertise to properly evaluate the full paper. The abstract introduces them to the concepts, allowing them to judge fit.

Evaluation of Methodology

Reviewers will analyze abstract descriptions of research methods to assess their appropriateness and rigor according to disciplinary standards and principles.

Assessment of Novelty and Significance

Experts will determine from the abstract whether the main findings meaningfully advance knowledge compared to prior work in the field.

Judgment of Clarity and Quality

The clarity, precision, conciseness, and coherence of the abstract itself reveals much about the quality of the underlying paper. A poorly written abstract reflects negatively.

Screening for Plagiarism

Abstracts get run through plagiarism software to check for duplication from prior publications and potential ethical issues that need further investigation.

Classification and Indexing

Abstract keywords help indexers assign accurate classifications and subject metadata to facilitate organized archiving and search functionality.

In essence, the abstract serves as the frontline in assessing the merits, rigor, relevance, and quality of manuscripts under consideration at journals or conferences. A well-constructed abstract supports favorable first impressions.

Common Sections in Research Paper Abstracts

While some minor variation can exist in abstract structure and format, most abstracts include these standard sections:


The background provides 1-2 sentences of context about the research problem or motivation for the study. This establishes the basic framework for readers.


The objectives succinctly state the main aims, research questions, hypotheses, or goals of the study in 1-2 sentences. This articulates the focus.


The methods briefly summarize in 1-2 sentences what analytical techniques, data sources, experimental interventions, simulation tools, or other systematic approaches were used.


The results highlight the key findings and outcomes in 1-2 sentences without excessive detail. Enough information is provided to indicate the central conclusions.


The conclusions interpret the main implications of the results in 1-2 sentences. This identifies why the findings are important without overstating their impact.


Some abstracts will end with 1-2 sentence recommendations for practice or future research. This proposes practical applications or new directions based on the study.

Following this standard structure creates cohesive abstracts that transition logically between critical parts in a clear manner understandable to readers.


In summary, the abstract provides a short yet comprehensive overview highlighting the key aspects of a research paper. Its purposes are to present the rationale, methods, results, and conclusions in a concise and accessible way. Well-constructed abstracts accurately represent papers while engaging readers. Writing abstracts requires organization, brevity, analysis, and objectivity. Following standard formatting, avoiding common pitfalls, understanding use cases, and developing key skills will lead to impactful abstracts that showcase your important research to the world.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *